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Ramadan Day5: Tafseer of Qur’an 9:6 on “one who commits shirk before the hujjah is established”

The following verses from the Qur’an and their tafseer clearly reject any form of ‘udhr (excuse) for the one who commits shirk before the hujjah is established, and confirms that this person is given the name mushrik by Allah and by the acknowledged mufassirun. Anyone who claims that a person can remain a muslim while committing shirk in ignorance he is opposing the Quran, the Tafseer of the Quran, the Sunnah and the Ijmaa’ of the scholars.

Surah Tawbah (9:6):

وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ اسْتَجَارَكَ فَأَجِرْهُ حَتَّىٰ يَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ أَبْلِغْهُ مَأْمَنَهُ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَعْلَمُونَ

“And if anyone of the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allāh) seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allāh (the Qur’ān), and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men who know not.”
(At-Tawbah 9:6)

Ibn Kathir – rahimahullah – said in his tafseer:

يقول تعالى لنبيه ، صلوات الله وسلامه عليه : ( وإن أحد من المشركين ) الذين أمرتك بقتالهم ، وأحللت لك استباحة نفوسهم وأموالهم ، ( استجارك ) أي : استأمنك ، فأجبه إلى طلبته ( حتى يسمع كلام الله ) أي : [ القرآن ] تقرؤه عليه وتذكر له شيئا من [ أمر ] الدين تقيم عليه به حجة الله ، ( ثم أبلغه مأمنه ) أي : وهو آمن مستمر الأمان حتى يرجع إلى بلاده وداره ومأمنه ، ( ذلك بأنهم قوم لا يعلمون ) أي : إنما شرعنا أمان مثل هؤلاء ليعلموا دين الله ، وتنتشر دعوة الله في عباده .

”The Exalted says to his Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam): (And if anyone of the Mushrikûn) those who you have been ordered to fight and those who I have allowed that you permit their lives and wealth, (seeks your protection) which means: asks for your safety. Then give him what he asks for (so that he may hear the Word of Allāh) which means: The Quran. You should read it for him and mention some things from the issues of religion by which you establish the hujjah of Allah upon him. (and then escort him to where he can be secure) which means: he will continue to be secure until he returns to his country and home and his own safety zone. (That is because they are men who know not.) Which means: We verily legislated the safety for people like this so they can learn the religion of Allah and so the da’wah of Allah may spread among the slaves.” (end quote)

Al-Baghawi – rahimahullah – said in his tafseer the same verse (9:6):

قوله تعالى : ( وإن أحد من المشركين استجارك ) أي : وإن استجارك أحد من المشركين الذين أمرتك بقتالهم وقتلهم ، أي : استأمنك بعد انسلاخ الأشهر الحرم ليسمع كلام الله . ( فأجره ) فأعذه وآمنه ، ( حتى يسمع كلام الله ) فيما له وعليه من الثواب والعقاب ، ( ثم أبلغه مأمنه ) أي : إن لم يسلم أبلغه مأمنه ، أي : الموضع الذي يأمن فيه وهو دار قومه ، فإن قاتلك بعد ذلك فقدرت عليه فاقتله ، ( ذلك بأنهم قوم لا يعلمون ) أي : لا يعلمون دين الله تعالى وتوحيده فهم محتاجون إلى سماع كلام الله . قال الحسن : وهذه الآية محكمة إلى يوم القيامة .

”His – the Exalted – words: (And if anyone of the Mushrikûn seeks your protection) which means: If any of the mushrikeen that you were ordered to fight and kill asks for your protection, which means: asks you for safety after the end of the sacred months (where fighting is prohibited) in order for him to hear the words of Allah. (then grant him protection) Then grant him safety. (So that he may hear the Word of Allāh) of what there is for him and upon him of reward and punishment. (And then escort him to where he can be secure) which means: if he does not become a Muslim then escort him to safety, which means: the place where he can be safe and that is his home and his people. So if he fights you after this then if you are capable of it then kill him. (That is because they are men who know not) which means: They do not know the religion of Allah nor His Tawheed so they are in need of hearing the words of Allah. Al-Hasan said: ‘And this verse is muhkam (clear and applicable) until they Day of Judgment.” (end quote)

Surah Bayyinah (98:1)

لَمْ يَكُنِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ مُنفَكِّينَ حَتَّىٰ تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَةُ

“Those who disbelieve from among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and among Al-Mushrikûn, were not going to leave (their disbelief) until the clear evidence comes to them.” (Al-Baiyinah 98:1)

Al-Baghawi – rahimahullah – said in his tafseer of the verse:

مكية

) لم يكن الذين كفروا من أهل الكتاب ) وهم اليهود والنصارى ، ( والمشركين ) وهم عبدة الأوثان ، ( منفكين ) [ منتهين عن كفرهم وشركهم ، وقال أهل اللغة ] : زائلين منفصلين ، يقال : فككت الشيء فانفك ، أي : انفصل ، ( حتى تأتيهم البينة ) لفظه مستقبل ومعناه الماضي ، أي : حتى أتتهم البينة ، الحجة الواضحة ، يعني : محمدا – صلى الله عليه وسلم – ، أتاهم بالقرآن فبين لهم [ ضلالاتهم ] وجهالتهم ودعاهم إلى الإيمان . فهذه الآية فيمن آمن من الفريقين ، أخبر أنهم لم ينتهوا عن الكفر حتى أتاهم الرسول فدعاهم إلى الإيمان فآمنوا فأنقذهم الله من الجهل والضلالة

(This verse was revealed in) Makkah.

“(Those who disbelieve from among the people of the Scripture) and they are the Jews and the Christians. (and among Al-Mushrikûn) and they are the worshippers of idols. (were not going to leave) would not stop committing their kufr and shirk. And the scholars of language said: end and disconnect. It is said: You separated from something so it was separated, which means: disconnected. (until the clear evidence comes to them) its words are in the future but its meaning is in the past, which means: until the clear evidence came to them. The clear hujjah, which means: Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) who came to them with the Quran so he clarified for them their misguidance and ignorance and invited them to Iman. So this verse is regarding those from the two groups who believed, Allah informed that they would never stop performing their kufr before the Messenger came to them and invited them to Iman, so they believed and Allah saved them from ignorance and misguidance.” (end quote)

As-Sa’di – rahimahullah – said in his tafseer of the same verse (98:1):

يقول تعالى: { لَمْ يَكُنِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ } أي: [من] اليهود والنصارى { وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ } من سائر أصناف الأمم. } مُنْفَكِّينَ } عن كفرهم وضلالهم الذي هم عليه، أي: لا يزالون في غيهم وضلالهم، لا يزيدهم مرور السنين إلا كفرًا.{ حَتَّى تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَةُ } الواضحة، والبرهان الساطع.

“He – the Exalted – said: (Those who disbelieve from among the people of the Scripture) which means: from the Jews and the Christians. (and among Al-Mushrikûn) from all other groups of nations. (Were not going to leave) their kufr and misguidance which they are upon: they would not stop with their error and misguidance while the passing of years would only increase them in kufr. (until there came to them clear evidence) the clear evidence and manifest proof.” (end quote)

Commentary: Notice how these people who committed shirk while they were in ignorance and misguidance, and before the messenger came to them were described as mushrikeen and not muslims. So whoever says khawarij to those who declare those who commit shirk as mushrikeen must also declare Ibn Kathir, Al-Baghawi, As-Sadi – rahimahullah – and many other mufassirun as khawarij. We seek refuge with Allah from foolishness in the religion of Allah.

Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhab – rahimahullah – said:

“As for the description of Rejecting the taghut, then it is that you believe in the invalidity of worshipping other than Allaah, and that you abandon doing so and hate it, and that you declare takfeer upon and make enmity with those who do it. And as for the meaning of Believing in Allah, then it is that you believe that Allah is the only true God who deserves to be worshipped alone, apart from everything else besides Him. And it is that you make all types of worship – every act – sincerely for Allah alone, while negating and rejecting that from everything else that is worshipped besides Him. It also entails that you love and show friendship to the people of Ikhlas (i.e. Islaam), while hating and showing enmity to the people of Shirk. This is the Religion of Ibrahim, that only the fool turns away from.” (Risalah Ma’na At-Taghut)
May Allaah ease our task. ammeen
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Jazaakumullaahu khayraan

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